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Are you a Managers or a Leaders

Managers and Leaders: What's the Difference?
Their roles may be indistinguishable to some, but a closer inspection reveals a complementary relationship built on almost divergent agendas.

Ask most people to explain the difference between the role of a manager and that of a leader and they may think you're positing a latter-day "riddle of the sphinx". Unlike the sphinx's riddle, however, the definitions of the manager's and the leader's roles cannot be reduced to a single word. And although it may be essentially correct to say that one manages things and the other leads people, this falls far short of presenting a complete picture. So what is the difference? The following definitions are a good starting point.

The Manager

The Manager is responsible for activities such as planning, budgeting, organizing and coordinating tasks and activities within and across the organization. Managers also manage the performance of others, ensuring people achieve goals and results. The way they do this depends on the nature of the work being done. In situations where performance depends on following strict processes and procedures, managers oversee work, looking to minimize mistakes
and to control deviations. In situations that are less process but more results oriented, managers set goals and expectations for the results and offer guidance and feedback, but generally let their people decide for themselves how to get the work done. Managers, therefore, focus most of their efforts internally, on what is happening inside the organization.

The Leader

The Leader is more externally focused. Leaders search for order in the uncertainty and unpredictability of change and progress, and in that order see opportunities. They communicate those opportunities and, in so doing, ensure that the organization changes and readies itself to take advantage of the opportunities. This can create uncertainty within the organization. Leaders absorb this uncertainty by listening and reacting to what people are feeling and saying. They communicate with compassion, showing respect and understanding. In doing this, they set and communicate directions. Their actions articulate the culture and values of the organization. In acting with confidence, they provide a source of assurance and a sense that the needs of each individual in the organization will be met.


Corresponding Concepts

Within any organization, there are certain senior roles that require more leadership, and others that require more management. Likewise, certain times and situations require more leadership, while others require more management. Management is no substitute for leadership, nor is leadership a substitute for management - they are complementary. For example:

  • Management is about complexity; the concept of management came about with the advent of the large organization. It brings order, consistency and control to the organization.
  • Leadership, on the other hand, is about change - or coping with change. Within the organization, it has become more important and critical, given the hectic pace of change in today's world - the need to respond to rapidly changing markets and competitors.
  • Management is concerned with budget and operational plans, the specific tasks that must be performed to achieve goals.
  • Leadership is concerned with strategies, vision and direction. One without the other is insufficient. Strong leadership without management leads to chaos; management without leadership breeds bureaucracy.
  • Management focuses on organizational structure and processes. It is about organizing and staffing, job structures, communicating the organization's plan, etc.
  • Leadership focuses on aligning people with the business - having the right people on board, being clear about intent, and ensuring that people are committed and accountable to where we are trying to go. Alignment is primarily a communications challenge, and proper alignment allows greater adaptability.
  • Finally, management is concerned with controlling and problem-solving, while leadership is focused on motivating and inspiring.
  • Leadership is concerned with keeping people moving in the right direction, despite obstacles, and appealing to basic, yet untapped, human values, needs and emotions. Good leaders always find ways to engage people. They recognize and reward success.


Employer's Expectations

All companies strive for a unique value proposition and unique sources of competitive advantage. They define opportunities and determine how to take advantage of those opportunities in their own unique way. Consequently, every leader faces a unique set of challenges, and each company has its unique expectations of its leaders.

Companies also have leadership requirements that are rooted in their business strategies and potential challenges in executing these strategies.

In satisfying those requirements, leaders demonstrate various behaviors. Whether they exhibit those behaviors or not determines the effectiveness or otherwise of the particular leader.

Those who are not leaders - in any formal sense - take their cues from their leaders for what is and what is not acceptable in terms of their own behaviors. This is why leaders must "walk the talk" - do what they say and practice what they preach.

The following are typical examples of the expectations a company might have of its leaders.

  • Leaders are responsible for creating long-term value. They manage the finances of the business. This requires a mindset that looks beyond shorter-term revenue and profit gains to the ongoing financial development of the company. This involves managing assets (particularly working capital - receivables and inventories, for example) effectively and efficiently, developing longer-term financial partnerships with customers, and managing risks effectively.
  • Leaders know the markets and industries in which the company does business and how it does business in those markets and industries. Industry and market knowledge allows the company to know its customers and partners better.
  • Leaders can observe and interpret their environment - both internal and external - and identify business opportunities. This involves looking for, and being sensitive to, patterns and relationships between apparently unconnected events, as well as continually looking for new and different interpretations. The ability to do these things generates opportunities


  • Leaders will identify and partner with the right customers - those who contribute to the company's long-term growth - and commit to the highest levels of satisfaction among those customers. Identifying the right customers is about being able to foresee long-term partnerships that are profitable.
  • Leaders are able to get things done. They plan and execute. Leaders must plan how to conduct their business, considering factors such as the impact on company finances, how the company appears to customers, and implications for resources and knowledge management.
  • Leaders model the company's values. For example, a company with a branch structure may be built around the idea of shared resources and shared learning. A culture of sharing resources - knowledge, best practices, customer and market information - would be critical. Leaders can make this happen.
  • Leaders develop people. Leaders can align individual development goals with the development and learning needs of the company. They should cultivate a learning culture, which encourages the company's people to keep up-to-date professionally and in terms of their knowledge of the company's business.



Employee's Expectations

As important as the employer's grueling demands, the leader also has to take into consideration the fact that a larger number of employees also have expectations of them. When the employer's expectations are met, the leader can expect to be rewarded financially. When the employees' expectations are met, the leader can expect a reward in the form of enhanced credibility. And when a leader is seen as more credible by those he or she leads, leadership effectiveness will be given a boost.

Following are some of the qualities employees appreciate (though not necessarily expect) in their leaders.

  • Trustworthiness: strong leaders show respect, treat people decently and take the time to communicate.
  • Fairness: effective leaders do not exercise their authority recklessly, nor do they ask people to do things that are unnecessary, difficult or impossible to complete in the given time frame.
  • Unassuming: credible leaders are not ostentatious, nor do they flaunt their "perks" and privileges.
  • Listening: people look for signs in their leaders that they and their concerns are understood.
  • Open-minded and broadminded: effective leaders do not automatically say "no". They encourage idea sharing. They are easy to talk to. They do not get distracted by the little things, or overlook small errors.
  • Sensitive to people: credible leaders demonstrate that they know and understand the issues on their peoples' minds.
  • Initiative: effective leaders show that they think, demonstrate good judgement and - above all - act.
  • Decision-making: effective leaders make decisions and do so at an appropriate pace - neither too hastily nor too slowly.


The Thin Line

The task of balancing the needs of employers and employees places a great deal of responsibility on the shoulders of a company's leaders. The need to be innovative, an originator, and a challenger of the status quo requires great instinct, integrity and even bravery.

The very qualities that can lead to success in a leader's first few leadership assignments can be those that lead to failure in more senior and more complex leadership assignments. There are a few reasons for this:

  • Success in an earlier assignment - either, for example, because of demonstrated intelligence or technical ability, impressive results, a commitment to action, a commitment to the organization's success, an exceptional ability with people, or because of all or some of these factors - will usually lead to rapid promotion or a more challenging assignment. Self-esteem and confidence increases. At these times, an organization - the superiors of the up-and-coming leader - are likely to overlook any flaws.
  • The more senior or challenging position may require skills and competencies that were not required in the earlier positions. For example, the position may require the ability to manage more senior people,make decisions from a wider organizational perspective, broaden a circle of relationships, and handle greater levels of stress and pressure. Yet a lack of feedback regarding flaws evident in the earlier assignments, combined with the enhanced self-confidence and self-esteem - even arrogance - that resulted from the earlier successes may reduce that individual's ability to deal effectively with, and even to recognize the more difficult nature of, these new challenges.
  • At the same time, qualities that led to success earlier may be the very ones that hinder success later. Brilliance, for example, can be intimidating to others, or can contribute to poor listening skills. Over-commitment can lead to a loss of perspective and burn out. Analytical thinking can lead to "analysis paralysis" and indecisiveness. Integrity can be perceived as zealotry or rigidity. Results and action orientation can be perceived as recklessness and being dictatorial. Being good
with people can lead to softness and an inability to make tough people-related decisions. Innovation can lead to spending too much time and money on unrealistic or impractical projects and ideas. And customer focus can undermine innovative thinking, can blur the focus on cost control and can lead to making unrealistic commitments.



The Best Leaders

Studies indicate that the success or failure of today's organization relies more than ever on leadership, and not just good management. Corporate winners and losers will be increasingly distinguished by the quality of their leaders.

When the results of Hewitt's 2001-2002 "Best Employers" studies were announced recently in Australia and India, the quality of leadership was cited in both countries as one of the most critical factors in the makeup of a Best Employer organization.

Andrew Bell, Hewitt's practice leader with responsibility for the "Best Employers to Work for in Australia" study, said that the key characteristics separating the Best Employer organizations from the other companies participating in the study included leadership. These leaders are trusted, they communicate more and are more passionate about their employees, he said. Andrea Slingsby, the global HR Manager of Flight Centre Limited, the company that topped the list of Australia's Best Employers in the "more than 1,000 employees" category, said: "As a company, we place strong emphasis on fostering leadership skills and identifying future leaders.

"Our philosophy of cultivating personal and career development means we give a strong degree of empowerment and trust to our people, providing them with a productive environment and an opportunity to develop and demonstrate their abilities," she said.

The "Best Employers in India" study arrived at almost identical conclusions as the Australian study.

"Employees tended to be more exuberant and confident about their leaders and positive about their managers," the India study found.

In a televised speech broadcast at the Best Employers in India awards ceremony, Narayan Murthy, the Chairman and CEO of Infosys Technologies Ltd, India's number one Best Employer organization, stressed the importance of good leadership when he said: "It's the leaders that raise aspirations. It's the leaders that raise the confidence of people. It's the leaders that make people say, 'we'll walk on water'. So the importance of leadership in the good of the company can never ever be exaggerated." 
More Facts About Leadership
  • Leadership focuses on setting a vision and influencing people to achieve this vision.
  • The exact behavior or style of leadership that is most effective depends on the situation.
  • All leaders are expected to be flexible, straightforward, resourceful, sincere, open, adaptable and empathetic.

spike bullet Management vs. Leadership

The differences between Managers and Leaders are often subtle. The "best" learn to use management skills when appropriate and leadership skills when appropriate. Management skills are not limited to people with job title of "managers" nor are leadership skills limited to people with job title of "leaders." And, some portion of people who do carry those titles, do not have the skills implied by the title. Readers of the Dilbert comic series are very familiar with his poking fun at managers and corporate culture.

Many people in everyday circumstances use management skills, leadership skills or a combination of both. Learning the differences and how to use the skills appropriately is an art, as noted by Craig Hickman in his book Mind of a Manager, Soul of a Leader.

spike bullet Managers and Leaders - Comparison of Traits

spike bulletDefinition:

Managers . . .

Leaders . . .

are analytical, structured, controlled, deliberate and orderly are experimental, visionary, flexible, unfettered and creative

spike bulletPrimary Problem-Solving Method:

Managers . . .

Leaders . . .

use the power of the logical mind use the power of intuition
spike bullet Competitive Strategy/Advantage Focus:

Managers . . .

Leaders . . .

Concentrate on Strategy Nurture Culture
Consider Dangers Sense Opportunity
Follow Versions Pursue Visions
Isolate Correlate
Determine Scope of Problems Search for Alternative Solutions
Seek Markets Serve People
Think Rivals / Competition Think Partners / Cooperation
Design Incremental Strategies Lay Out Sweeping Strategies
Correct Strategic Weaknesses Build on Strategic Strengths
spike bulletOrganizational Culture/Capability:

Managers . . .

Leaders . . .

Wield Authority Apply Influence
Seek Uniformity Pursue Unity
Administer Programs Develop People
Formulate Policy Set Examples
Instruct Inspire
Manage by Goals / Objectives Manage by Intercourse
Control Empower
Easily Release Employees Would Rather Enhance Employees
Employ Consistency Elicit Creativity
spike bulletExternal/Internal Change:

Managers . . .

Leaders . . .

Yearn for Stability Thrive on Crisis
Duplicate Originate
Fasten Things Down Unfasten Them
Drive Toward Compromise Work to Polarize
See Complexity See Simplicity
React Proactive
Plan Experiment
Reorganize Redevelop
Refine Revolutionize
spike bulletIndividual Effectiveness Style:

Managers . . .

Leaders . . .

Ask How (Seek Methods) Wonder Why (Seek Motives)
Think Logically Think Laterally
Perpetuate Hierarchies Strive for Equality
Are Skeptical Are Optimistic
Plan Around Confront
Take Charge Encourage Delegation
Like Formality Prefer Informality
Venerate Science Revere Art
Perform Duties Pursue Dreams
spike bullet Bottom-Line Performance/Results:

Managers . . .

Leaders . . .

Scrutinize Performance Search for Potential
Are Dependent Are Independent
Compensate People Satisfy Them
Conserve Assets Risk Them
Pursue the Tangible Seek the Intangible
Inhabit the Present Reside in the Future
Concentrate on Short-term Results Seek Long-term Results
Want Good Demand Better
spike bulletExamples:  

Managers . . .

Leaders . . .

Henry Ford, Ford Motor Company Ray Kroc, McDonald's
Harold Geneen, ITT Walt Disney, Disney Studios
John Akers, IBM Ross Perot, EDS and Perot Systems
Tom Landry, Dallas Cowboys Ted Turner, Turner Broadcasting
Charles Knight, Emerson Electric Steven Jobs, Apple Computer
George Bush, President of the U.S. Bill Clinton, President of the U.S.

spike bullet Traits of "Managers" and "Leaders"

These comparisons were developed from many sources.

Manager Traits . . .

Leader Traits . . .

Doesn't insure imagination, creativity, or ethical behavior Uses personal power to influence the thoughts and actions of others.
Rationally analyzes a situation, developing systematic selection of goals and purposes (what is to be done). Intuitive, mystical understanding of what needs to be done.
Directs energy toward: goals, resources, organization structure, determining the problems to be solved Directs energy toward guiding people toward practical solutions.
Perpetuates group conflicts. Works to develop harmonious interpersonal relationships.
Becomes anxious when there is relative disorder. Works best when things are somewhat disorderly or chaotic.
Uses their accumulation of collective experience to get where they are going. Often jumps to conclusions, without a logical progression of thoughts or facts.
Innovates by 'tinkering' with existing processes Innovates through flashes of insight or intuition.
Sees the world as relatively impersonal and static (black and white). Sees the world as full of color, and constantly blending into new colors and shapes.
Influences people through the use of logic, facts and reason. Influences people through altering moods, evoking images and expectation.
Views work as an enabling process, involving a combination of ideas, skills, timing and people. Views work as developing fresh approaches to old problems, or finding new options for old issues.
Views work as something that must be done or tolerated. Views work as something challenging and exciting.
Has an instinct for survival; seeks to minimize risks and tolerate the mundane. Sometimes reacts to the mundane and routine as an affliction.
Has a low level of emotional involvement in their work. Takes in emotional signals from others, making them mean something in the relationship with an individual; often passionate about their work.
Relates to people by the role they play in a sequence or in a decision­making process. Relates to people in intuitive and empathic ways.
Focuses on how things need to be done. Focuses on what needs to be done, leaving decisions to people involved.
Focuses attention on procedure. Focuses on the decision to be made.
Communicates with subordinates indirectly, using 'signals'. Communicates through 'messages' heightening the emotional response.
Once­born; their lives have been most straight­forward and predictable, takes things for granted. Twice­born; their lives have not always been easy, often marked by some struggle to attain a sense of order; does not take things for granted.
Sees themselves as conservators and regulators of an existing order of affairs; belongs to the organization; believes in duty and responsibility to their organization. Sees themselves as separate from their environment; may work in organizations but never belong to them; searches for opportunities for change.
Sees themselves as an integral part of their social structure and social standard Sees themselves as a constantly evolving human being, focusing more inwardly than outwardly.
Develops themselves through socialization, seeking to maintain the balance of social relations. Develops themselves through personal mastery, struggling for psychological and social change.
Finds harmony in living up to society's, company's and family's expectations. Finds self-esteem through self-reliance and personal expression.
Forms moderate and widely distributed personal attachments with others. Forms intensive one­on­one relationships, which may be of short duration; often has mentors.
Feels threatened by open challenges to their ideas, are troubled by aggressiveness. Able to tolerate aggressive interchanges, encouraging emotional involvement with others.

spike bullet Changing Styles for the New Millennium

Quality: Empowerment

Moving from Management: Moving toward Leadership:
Punishment Reward
Demands "respect" Invites speaking out
Drill sergeant Motivator
Limits and defines Empowers
Imposes discipline Values creativity
"Here's what we're going to do!" "How can I serve you?"
Bottom line Vision

Quality: Restructure

Moving from Management: Moving toward Leadership:
Control Change
Rank Connection
Hierarchy Network
Rigid Flexible
Automatic annual raises Pay for performance
Performance review Mutual contract for results
Mechanistic Wholistic
Compartmental Systemic

Quality: Teaching

Moving from Management: Moving toward Leadership:
Order-giving Facilitating
Military archetype Teaching archetype

Quality: Role Model

Moving from Management: Moving toward Leadership:
Issues orders Acts as role model
Demands unquestioning obedience Coaches and mentors others

Quality: Openness

Moving from Management: Moving toward Leadership:
Keeping people on their toes Nourishing environment for growth
Reach up/down Reach out
Information control Information availability

Quality: Questions and Answers

Moving from Management: Moving toward Leadership:
Knows all the answers Asks the right questions
Not interested in new answers Seeks to learn and draw out new ideas

Leading vs. Managing -- They're Two Different Animals

    Are you a manager or a leader? Although you may hear these two terms thrown out interchangeably, they are in fact two very different animals complete with different personalities and world views. By learning whether you are more of a leader or more of a manager, you will gain the insight and self-confidence that comes with knowing more about yourself. The result is greater impact and effectiveness when dealing with others and running your business.

    We are going to take a look at the different personality styles of managers versus leaders, the attitudes each have toward goals, their basic conceptions of what work entails, their relationships with others, and their sense of self (or self-identity) and how it develops. Last of all, we will examine leadership development and discover what criteria is necessary for leaders to reach their full potential.

    First of all, let's take a look at the difference in personality styles between a manager and a leader.

    Managers - emphasize rationality and control; are problem-solvers (focusing on goals, resources, organization structures, or people); often ask question, "What problems have to be solved, and what are the best ways to achieve results so that people will continue to contribute to this organization?"; are persistent, tough-minded, hard working, intelligent, analytical, tolerant and have goodwill toward others.

    Leaders - are perceived as brilliant, but sometimes lonely; achieve control of themselves before they try to control others; can visualize a purpose and generate value in work; are imaginative, passionate, non-conforming risk-takers.

    Managers and leaders have very different attitudes toward goals.

    Managers - adopt impersonal, almost passive, attitudes toward goals; decide upon goals based on necessity instead of desire and are therefore deeply tied to their organization's culture; tend to be reactive since they focus on current information.

    Leaders - tend to be active since they envision and promote their ideas instead of reacting to current situations; shape ideas instead of responding to them; have a personal orientation toward goals; provide a vision that alters the way people think about what is desirable, possible, and necessary.

    Now let's look at managers' and leaders' conceptions of work.

    Managers - view work as an enabling process; establish strategies and makes decisions by combining people and ideas; continually coordinate and balance opposing views; are good at reaching compromises and mediating conflicts between opposing values and perspectives; act to limit choice; tolerate practical, mundane work because of strong survival instinct which makes them risk-averse.

    Leaders - develop new approaches to long-standing problems and open issues to new options; first, use their vision to excite people and only then develop choices which give those images substance; focus people on shared ideals and raise their expectations; work from high-risk positions because of strong dislike of mundane work.

    Managers and leaders have very different relations with others.

    Managers - prefer working with others; report that solitary activity makes them anxious; are collaborative; maintain a low level of emotional involvement in relationships; attempt to reconcile differences, seek compromises, and establish a balance of power; relate to people according to the role they play in a sequence of events or in a decision-making process; focus on how things get done; maintain controlled, rational, and equitable structures ; may be viewed by others as inscrutable, detached, and manipulative.

    Leaders - maintain inner perceptiveness that they can use in their relationships with others; relate to people in intuitive, empathetic way; focus on what events and decisions mean to participants; attract strong feelings of identity and difference or of love and hate; create systems where human relations may be turbulent, intense, and at times even disorganized.

    The Self-Identity of managers versus leaders is strongly influenced by their past.

    Managers - report that their adjustments to life have been straightforward and that their lives have been more or less peaceful since birth; have a sense of self as a guide to conduct and attitude which is derived from a feeling of being at home and in harmony with their environment; see themselves as conservators and regulators of an existing order of affairs with which they personally identify and from which they gain rewards; report that their role harmonizes with their ideals of responsibility and duty; perpetuate and strengthen existing institutions; display a life development process which focuses on socialization...this socialization process prepares them to guide institutions and to maintain the existing balance of social relations.

    Leaders - reportedly have not had an easy time of it; lives are marked by a continual struggle to find some sense of order; do not take things for granted and are not satisfied with the status quo; report that their "sense of self" is derived from a feeling of profound separateness; may work in organizations, but they never belong to them; report that their sense of self is independent of work roles, memberships, or other social indicators of social identity; seek opportunities for change (i.e. technological, political, or ideological); support change; find their purpose is to profoundly alter human, economic, and political relationships; display a life development process which focuses on personal mastery...this process impels them to struggle for psychological and social change.

    Development of Leadership

    As you can see, managers and leaders are very different animals. It is important to remember that there are definite strengths and weaknesses of both types of individuals. Managers are very good at maintaining the status quo and adding stability and order to our culture. However, they may not be as good at instigating change and envisioning the future. On the other hand, leaders are very good at stirring people's emotions, raising their expectations, and taking them in new directions (both good and bad). However, like artists and other gifted people, leaders often suffer from neuroses and have a tendency toward self-absorption and preoccupation.

    If you are planning on owning your own business, you must develop management skills, whether they come naturally or not. However, what do you do if you believe you are, in fact, a leader - a diamond in the rough? What can you do to develop as a leader? Throughout history, it has been shown again and again that leaders have needed strong one-to-one relationships with teachers whose strengths lie in cultivating talent in order to reach their full potential. If you think you are a leader at heart, find a teacher that you admire - someone who you can connect with and who can help you develop your natural talents and interests. Whether you reach "glory" status or not, you will grow in ways you never even imagined. And isn't that what life is about anyway?

Leadership Skills

Now, and some say as never before in our nation leadership skills have taken on a new meaning. We focus on business leadership skills that truly establish one as a leader through:

  • Trust
  • Postive results
  • Credibility
  • Business acumen
  • Concern for the individual
  • Ability to articulate a vision
  • Identify and support 3-4 key priorities


In the workplace we have know for years that a high IQ is far from a reliable predictor of success. Emotional Intelligence, the ability to be intelligent about yours and other emotions, is now acknowledged as the key ingredient in a successful leader. Leadership includes the ability to:
  • Articulate and arouse enthusiasm for a shared vision and mission.
  • Step forward to take a position - Courage.
  • Guide the performance of others while holding them accountable.
  • Establish trust and relationships that lead to conversations of action.
  • Demonstrate high ability in the attributes of emotional intelligence: self-awareness, self-control, empathy, motivation and social skills.

Here is a list of the core courses we offer to help develop these critical leadership skills. We can customize any of the following for you!

Leadership Skills:
Applying Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace
  • Understand what causes their thoughts and feelings.
  • Recognize their emotional arousal points (angry, sad, despondent, anxious) and what to do about it.
  • Manage their emotions.
  • Identify "automatic" self-talk messages that produce that first emotional response.
  • Communicate "passion" for a project without being stubborn.
  • Deal with setbacks.
  • Use Emotional Intelligence to neutralize the other person's emotional reaction.
  • Help others act and respond in an emotionally intelligent way.

    Leadership. Of the three areas of competency; cognitive skills, expertise and emotional intelligence, emotional intelligence is deemed to account for 80-90% of what differentiates managers and leaders.
    Diversity. Understanding of E.I. takes diversity past the tolerance stage to one of enhanced creativity: using all of your human capital.
    Persuading and Influencing. Anyone attempting to convince, argue, negotiate, or lead a team uses emotional intelligence. How well they employ E.I. will be a deciding factor in performance.

  • Define empowerment.
  • Understand ways to increase its effectiveness.
  • Effective team building.
  • Develop an action plan to increase it with specific employees.
Manager as a Leader
  • Creating authentic vision and mission statements.
  • Trust: the key to leadership. How can you be a leader if no one trusts you enough to follow?
  • Integrity
  • Business acumen: how to simplify the business so everyone understands.
  • Aligning personal and organizational missions and visions.
Human Resource Professional as a Leader
  • Pro active vs. reactive behavior: the future of H.R.
  • Trust and credibility - how to establish and maintain.
  • Business acumen - H.R. value to the organization.
  • H.R. seven-step consultancy model.